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Question 1.During an infection, why do lymph nodes enlarge and become tender? (Points : 2) B lymphocytes proliferate. The nodes are inflamed.

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Question
1.During an infection, why do lymph nodes enlarge and become tender? (Points : 2)
B lymphocytes proliferate.
The nodes are inflamed.
The nodes fill with purulent exudate.
The nodes are not properly functioning.

Question 2.2.Which blood cells are the chief phagocytes involved in the early inflammation process? (Points : 2)
Neutrophils
Monocytes
Eosinophils
Erythrocytes

Question 3.3.What is the end-product of protein metabolism that is excreted in urine? (Points : 2)
Glucose
Ketones
Bile
Urea

Question 4.4.Where are Kupffer cells located? (Points : 2)
Kidneys
Liver
Pancreas
Spleen

Question 5.5.The portion of the antigen that is configured for recognition and binding is referred to as what type of determinant? (Points : 2)
Immunotope
Paratope
Epitope
Antigenitope

Question 6.6.What is the name of the disorder in which levels of bilirubin remain excessively high in the newborn and are deposited in the brain? (Points : 2)
Kernicterus
Icterus neonatorum
Jaundice
Icterus gravis neonatorum

Question 7.7.When diagnosed with hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN), why does the newborn develop hyperbilirubinemia after birth but not in utero? (Points : 2)
Excretion of unconjugated bilirubin through the placenta into the mother’s circulation is no longer possible.
Hemoglobin does not break down into bilirubin in the intrauterine environment.
The liver of the fetus is too immature to conjugate bilirubin from a lipid-soluble to water-soluble form.
The destruction of erythrocytes producing bilirubin is greater after birth.

Question 8.8.When renin is released, it is capable of which action? (Points : 2)
Inactivation of autoregulation
Direct activation of angiotensin II
Direct release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Formation of angiotensin I

Question 9.9.The existence of hyperkalemia is likely to result in which changes to a person’s electrocardiogram (ECG)? (Points : 2)
Flattened U waves
Peaked T waves
Depressed ST segments
Peaked P waves

Question 10.10.What term is used to identify the movement of fluids and solutes from the tubular lumen to the peritubular capillary plasma? (Points : 2)
Tubular secretion
Ultrafiltration
Tubular reabsorption
Tubular excretion

Question 11.11.A hypersensitivity reaction that produces an allergic response is called: (Points : 2)
Hemolytic shock
Anaphylaxis
Necrotizing vasculitis
Systemic erythematosus

Question 12.12.Tissue damage caused by the deposition of circulating immune complexes containing an antibody against the host DNA is the cause of which disease? (Points : 2)
Hemolytic anemia
Pernicious anemia
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Myasthenia gravis

Question 13.13.Cytokines are thought to cause fevers by stimulating the synthesis of which chemical mediator? (Points : 2)
Leukotriene
Histamine
Prostaglandin
Bradykinin

Question 14.14.Blood cells that differentiate into macrophages are known as: (Points : 2)
Monocytes
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils

Question 15.15.Chvostek and Trousseau signs indicate which electrolyte imbalance? (Points : 2)
Hypokalemia
Hyperkalemia
Hypocalcemia
Hypercalcemia

Question 16.16.On average, what percent of cardiac output do the kidneys receive? (Points : 2)
10% to 20%
15% to 20%
20% to 25%
30% to 35%

Question 17.17.Children with phenylketonuria (PKU) are unable to synthesize: (Points : 2)
Essential amino acid, phenylalanine, to tyrosine
Renin, erythropoietin, and antidiuretic hormone
Aldosterone, cortisol, and androgens
Neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetylcholine

Question 18.18.What is the chance with each pregnancy that a child born to two parents with the sickle trait will have sickle cell disease (SCD)? (Points : 2)
20%
25%
33%
50%

Question 19.19.In a full-term infant, the normal erythrocyte life span is _____ days, whereas the adult erythrocyte life span is _____ days. (Points : 2)
30 to 50; 80
60 to 80; 120
90 to 110; 140
120 to 130; 150

Question 20.20.Which statement accurately describes childhood asthma? (Points : 2)
An obstructive airway disease characterized by reversible airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and inflammation
A pulmonary disease characterized by severe hypoxemia, decreased pulmonary compliance, and diffuse densities on chest x-ray imaging
A pulmonary disorder involving an abnormal expression of a protein, producing viscous mucus that lines the airways, pancreas, sweat ducts, and vas deferens
An obstructive airway disease characterized by atelectasis and increased pulmonary resistance as a result of a surfactant deficiency

Question 21.21.Where are Langerhans cells found? (Points : 2)
Skin
Intestinal lining
Kidney
Thyroid

Question 22.22.The tonic neck reflex observed in a newborn should no longer be obtainable by: (Points : 2)
2 years
1 year
10 months
5 months

Question 23.23.Which of the following causes condylomata acuminata or genital warts? (Points : 2)
Chlamydia
Adenovirus
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)

Question 24.24.Which normal physiologic change occurs in the aging pulmonary system? (Points : 2)
Decreased flow resistance
Fewer alveoli
Stiffening of the chest wall
Improved elastic recoil

Question 25.25.What is the most commonly reported symptom of cancer treatment? (Points : 2)
Nausea
Fatigue
Hair loss
Weight loss

Question 26.26.What is the major virus involved in the development of cervical cancer? (Points : 2)
Herpes simplex virus type 6
Herpes simplex virus type 2
Human papillomavirus
Human immunodeficiency virus

Question 27.27.Aspiration is most likely to occur in the right mainstem bronchus because it: (Points : 2)
Extends vertically from the trachea.
Is narrower than the left mainstem bronchus.
Comes into contact with food and drink first.
Is located at the site where the bronchi bifurcate.

Question 28.28.Continued therapy of pernicious anemia (PA) generally lasts how long? (Points : 2)
6 to 8 weeks
8 to 12 months
Until the iron level is normal
The rest of one’s life

Question 29.29.Stress-induced norepinephrine results in: (Points : 2)
Pupil constriction
Peripheral vasoconstriction
Increased sweat gland secretions
Decreased blood pressure

Question 30.30.Which of the following are formed elements of the blood that are not cells but are disk-shaped cytoplasmic fragments essential for blood clotting? (Points : 2)
Monocytes
Platelets
Macrophages
Erythrocytes

Question 31.31.Which statement is true regarding maternal antibodies provided to the neonate? (Points : 2)
The antibodies enter into the fetal circulation by means of active transport.
The antibodies are transferred to the fetus via the lymphatic system.
The antibodies are directly related to the mother’s nutritional intake.
The antibodies reach protective levels after approximately 6 months of age.

Question 32.32.What type of immunity is produced when an immunoglobulin crosses the placenta? (Points : 2)
Passive-acquired immunity
Active-acquired immunity
Passive-innate immunity
Active-innate immunity

Question 33.33.Which immunoglobulin is present in blood, saliva, breast milk, and respiratory secretions? (Points : 2)
IgA
IgE
IgG
IgM

Question 34.34.What local complication of a gonococcal infection is diagnosed in approximately 10% of affected women? (Points : 2)
Acute salpingitis
Cystitis
Vaginitis
Cervicitis

Question 35.35.Kidney stones in the upper part of the ureter would produce pain referred to which anatomical area? (Points : 2)
Vulva or penis
Umbilicus
Thighs
Lower abdomen

Question 36.36.Which renal change is found in older adults? (Points : 2)
Sharp decline in glomerular filtration rate
Sharp decline in renal blood flow
Decrease in the number of nephrons
Decrease in urine output

Question 37.37.The function of the tumor cell marker is to: (Points : 2)
Provide a definitive diagnosis of cancer.
Treat certain types of cancer.
Predict where cancers will develop.
Screen individuals at high risk for cancer.

Question 38.38.Which type of anemia occurs as a result of thalassemia? (Points : 2)
Microcytic, hypochromic
Microcytic, normochromic
Macrocytic, hyperchromic
Macrocytic, normochromic

Question 39.39.Which chamber of the heart endures the highest pressures? (Points : 2)
Right atrium
Left atrium
Left ventricle
Right ventricle

Question 40.40.Which cancer originates from connective tissue? (Points : 2)
Osteogenic sarcoma
Basal cell carcinoma
Multiple myeloma
Adenocarcinoma

Question 41.41.Cystic fibrosis is caused by which process? (Points : 2)
Autosomal recessive inheritance
Autosomal dominant inheritance
Infection
Malignancy

Question 42.42.Which disease is an example of a rickettsial infection? (Points : 2)
Cholera
Candida
Sleeping sickness
Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Question 43.43.Stress-induced sympathetic stimulation of the adrenal medulla causes the secretion of: (Points : 2)
Epinephrine and aldosterone
Norepinephrine and cortisol
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Acetylcholine and cortisol

Question 44.44.Where are alveolar macrophages found? (Points : 2)
Skin
Breasts
Gastrointestinal tract
Lungs

Question 45.45.Which type of croup is most common? (Points : 2)
Bacterial
Viral
Fungal
Autoimmune

Question 46.46.Which hormone prompts increased anxiety, vigilance, and arousal during a stress response? (Points : 2)
Norepinephrine
Epinephrine
Cortisol
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Question 47.47.Which organism is responsible for the development of syphilis? (Points : 2)
Neisseria syphilis
Treponema pallidum
Haemophilus ducreyi
Chlamydia trachomatis

Question 48.48.What is the function of erythrocytes? (Points : 2)
Tissue oxygenation
Hemostasis
Infection control
Allergy response

Question 49.49.Which statement is true regarding pain and cancer? (Points : 2)
Pain is primarily a result of pressure caused by the tumor.
Pain indicates the metastasis of a cancer.
Pain is usually the initial symptom of cancer.
Pain is generally associated with late-stage cancer.

Question 50.50.Hemophilia B is caused by a deficiency of which clotting factor? (Points : 2)
V
VIII
IX
X

Question 51.51.Consanguinity refers to the mating of persons: (Points : 2)
Who are unrelated
When one has an autosomal dominant disorder
Having common family relations
When one has a chromosomal abnormality

Question 52.52.Which hormone is linked to an increase in appetite during puberty? (Points : 2)
Inhibin
Leptin
Activin
Follistatin

Question 53.53.Obesity acts as an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus by: (Points : 2)
Reducing the amount of insulin the pancreas produces
Increasing the resistance to insulin by cells
Obstructing the outflow of insulin from the pancreas
Stimulating the liver to increase glucose production

Question 54.54.What is the cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)? (Points : 2)
Diet high in saturated fats
Increased production of cholesterol by the liver
Reduction in the number of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cell surfaces
Abnormal function of lipoprotein receptors circulating in the blood

Question 55.55.The absence of which major hormone is a determinant of sexual differentiation (wolffian system) in utero? (Points : 2)
Estrogen
Progesterone
Growth hormone
Testosterone

Question 56.56.Saliva contains which immunoglobulin (Ig)? (Points : 2)
IgA
IgE
IgG
IgM

Question 57.57.What term describes the loss of the comprehension or production of language? (Points : 2)
Agnosia
Aphasia
Akinesia
Dysphasia

Question 58.58.Congenital aganglionic megacolon (Hirschsprung disease) involves inadequate motility of the colon caused by neural malformation of which nervous system? (Points : 2)
Central
Parasympathetic
Sympathetic
Somatic

Question 59.59.An infant suddenly develops abdominal pain, becomes irritable (colicky), and draws up the knees. Vomiting occurs soon afterward. The mother reports that the infant passed a normal stool, followed by one that looked like currant jelly. Based on these data, which disorder does the nurse suspect? (Points : 2)
Congenital aganglionic megacolon
Intussusception
Malrotation
Volvulus

Question 60.60.Regarding type 2 diabetes, obesity is considered to be what type of risk? (Points : 2)
Genetic
Empirical
Relative
Modifiable

Question 61.61.An amniocentesis indicates a neural tube defect when an increase in which protein is evident? (Points : 2)
Chorionic
Alpha fetoprotein
Amniotic
Embryonic

Question 62.62.The portion of the pituitary that secretes oxytocin is: (Points : 2)
Posterior
Inferior
Anterior
Superior

Question 63.63.Persistent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) include: (Points : 2)
Depression
Hypertension
Nightmares
Poor nutrition

Question 64.64.Which type of diarrhea results from lactose intolerance? (Points : 2)
Secretory
Motility
Osmotic
Small volume

Question 65.65.Which gastric cells secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor? (Points : 2)
Parietal
Chief
G
H

Question 66.66.The major sleep center is located in which section of the brain? (Points : 2)
Thalamus
Brainstem
Frontal lobe
Hypothalamus

Question 67.67.Which type of fracture usually occurs in an individual who engages in a new activity that is strenuous and repetitive? (Points : 2)
Stress
Greenstick
Insufficiency
Pathologic

Question 68.68.Which term is used to describe an intestinal obstruction caused by the invagination of the ileum into the cecum and part of the ascending colon by collapsing through the ileocecal valve? (Points : 2)
Congenital aganglionic megacolon
Malrotation
Intussusception
Volvulus

Question 69.69.What is the function of the mucus secreted by the Bartholin glands? (Points : 2)
Enhancement of the motility of sperm
Lubrication of the urinary meatus and vestibule
Maintenance of an acid-base balance to discourage proliferation of pathogenic bacteria
Enhancement of the size of the penis during intercourse

Question 70.70.At 2 or 3 weeks of age, an infant who has been well fed and has gained weight begins to vomit for no apparent reason. The vomiting gradually becomes more forceful. These symptoms may be indicative of which disorder? (Points : 2)
Esophageal atresia
Congenital aganglionic megacolon
Pyloric stenosis
Galactosemia

Question 71.71.Insulin transports which electrolyte in the cell? (Points : 2)
Potassium
Calcium
Sodium
Phosphorus

Question 72.72.Clinical manifestations of Parkinson disease are caused by a deficit in which of the brain’s neurotransmitters? (Points : 2)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid
Dopamine
Norepinephrine
Acetylcholine

Question 73.73.The presence of a zygote having one chromosome with the normal complement of genes and one with a missing gene is characteristic of which genetic disorder? (Points : 2)
Cri du chat
Down syndrome
Klinefelter syndrome
Turner syndrome

Question 74.74.The tear in a ligament is referred to as a: (Points : 2)
Fracture
Strain
Disunion
Sprain

Question 75.75.What syndrome, characterized by an absent homologous X chromosome with only a single X chromosome, exhibits features that include a short stature, widely spaced nipples, and webbed neck? (Points : 2)
Down
Cri du chat
Turner
Klinefelter

Question 76.76.Which risk factor for hypertension is influenced by genetic factors and lifestyle? (Points : 2)
Sodium intake
Physical inactivity
Psychosocial stress
Obesity

Question 77.77.Which medical diagnosis is characterized by tissue degeneration or irritation of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon? (Points : 2)
Lateral epicondylitis
Medial tendinitis
Bursitis
Lateral tendinitis

Question 78.78.Loud snoring, a decrease in oxygen saturation, fragmented sleep, chronic daytime sleepiness, and fatigue are clinical manifestations of which sleep disorder? (Points : 2)
Obstructive sleep apnea
Upper airway resistance syndrome
Somnambulism
Narcolepsy

Question 79.79.Which four-step process correctly describes muscle contraction? (Points : 2)
Coupling, contraction, relaxation, excitation
Contraction, relaxation, excitation, coupling
Relaxation, excitation, coupling, contraction
Excitation, coupling, contraction, relaxation

Question 80.80.What term is used to identify the calcium crystals that are associated with chronic gout? (Points : 2)
Stones
Spurs
Tophi
Nodes

Question 81.81.Which substance is a water-soluble protein hormone? (Points : 2)
Thyroxine
Aldosterone
Follicle-stimulating hormone
Insulin

Question 82.82.What happens to the vagina’s lining at puberty? (Points : 2)
It becomes thinner.
It becomes thicker.
It assumes a neutral pH.
It undergoes atrophy.

Question 83.83.Why is prolonged diarrhea more severe in children than it is in adults? (Points : 2)
Less water is absorbed from the colon in children.
Fluid reserves are smaller in children.
Children have a higher fluid volume intake.
Children have diarrhea more often than adults.

Question 84.84.Pinkeye is characterized by inflammation of which structure? (Points : 2)
Eyelids
Sebaceous glands
Meibomian glands
Conjunctiva

Question 85.85.Which dietary lifestyle choice has been associated with a decreased risk for developing colon cancer? (Points : 2)
Increased consumption of dairy produces
Increased consumption of foods containing vitamin C
Decreased consumption of foods high in fat
Decreased consumption of artificial food coloring

Question 86.86.Having ejected a mature ovum, the ovarian follicle develops into a(n): (Points : 2)
Atretic follicle
Thecal follicle
Corpus luteum
Functional scar

Question 87.87.What is the term that denotes the duration of time or the intensity of pain that a person will endure before outwardly responding? (Points : 2)
Tolerance
Perception
Threshold
Dominance

Question 88.88.Where is oxytocin synthesized? (Points : 2)
Hypothalamus
Paraventricular nuclei
Anterior pituitary
Posterior pituitary

Question 89.89.Adoption studies have shown that the offspring of an alcoholic parent when raised by nonalcoholic parents have what amount of an increased risk of developing alcoholism? (Points : 2)
Twofold
Threefold
Fourfold
Tenfold

Question 90.90.A child with which genetic disorder has a characteristic cry? (Points : 2)
Down syndrome
Klinefelter syndrome
Turner syndrome
Cri du chat

Question 91.91.It is true that myasthenia gravis: (Points : 2)
Is an acute autoimmune disease.
Affects the nerve roots.
May result in adrenergic crisis.
Causes muscle weakness.

Question 92.92.Which of the following is a lipid-soluble hormone? (Points : 2)
Cortisol
Oxytocin
Epinephrine
Growth hormone

Question 93.93.Which pain theory proposes that a balance of impulses conducted from the spinal cord to the higher centers in the central nervous system (CNS) modulates the transmission of pain? (Points : 2)
GCT
Pattern theory
Specificity theory
Neuromatrix theory

Question 94.94.Which anatomic structure secretes follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)? (Points : 2)
Hypothalamus
Ovaries
Anterior pituitary
Adrenal cortex

Question 95.95.What is the most common malignant bone tumor diagnosed during childhood? (Points : 2)
Chondrosarcoma
Fibrosarcoma
Ewing Sarcoma
Osteosarcoma

Question 96.96.In scoliosis, curves in the thoracic spine greater than how many degrees result in decreased pulmonary function? (Points : 2)
40
50
60
80

Question 97.97.Which clinical manifestations would be expected for a child who has complete trisomy of the twenty-first chromosome? (Points : 2)
Widely spaced nipples, reduced carrying angle at the elbow, and sparse body hair
An IQ of 25 to 70, low nasal bridge, protruding tongue, and flat, low-set ears
High-pitched voice, tall stature, gynecomastia, and an IQ of 60 to 90
Circumoral cyanosis, edema of the feet, short stature, and mental slowness

Question 98.98.DNA formation occurs in which of the cell’s structures? (Points : 2)
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Organelle
Membrane

Question 99.99.A complex partial seizure is described as: (Points : 2)
Alternating of tonic and clonic movements
Impairment of both consciousness and the ability to react to exogenous stimuli
Focal motor movement without loss of consciousness
One seizure followed by another in less than 1 minute

Question 100.100.Parkinson disease is a degenerative disorder of the brain’s: (Points : 2)
Hypothalamus
Anterior pituitary
Frontal lobe
Basal ganglia

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