1.During an infection, why do lymph nodes enlarge and become tender? (Points : 2)
B lymphocytes proliferate.
The nodes are inflamed.
The nodes fill with purulent exudate.
The nodes are not properly functioning.
Question 2.2.Which blood cells are the chief phagocytes involved in the early inflammation process? (Points : 2)
Question 3.3.What is the end-product of protein metabolism that is excreted in urine? (Points : 2)
Question 4.4.Where are Kupffer cells located? (Points : 2)
Question 5.5.The portion of the antigen that is configured for recognition and binding is referred to as what type of determinant? (Points : 2)
Question 6.6.What is the name of the disorder in which levels of bilirubin remain excessively high in the newborn and are deposited in the brain? (Points : 2)
Icterus gravis neonatorum
Question 7.7.When diagnosed with hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN), why does the newborn develop hyperbilirubinemia after birth but not in utero? (Points : 2)
Excretion of unconjugated bilirubin through the placenta into the mother’s circulation is no longer possible.
Hemoglobin does not break down into bilirubin in the intrauterine environment.
The liver of the fetus is too immature to conjugate bilirubin from a lipid-soluble to water-soluble form.
The destruction of erythrocytes producing bilirubin is greater after birth.
Question 8.8.When renin is released, it is capable of which action? (Points : 2)
Inactivation of autoregulation
Direct activation of angiotensin II
Direct release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Formation of angiotensin I
Question 9.9.The existence of hyperkalemia is likely to result in which changes to a person’s electrocardiogram (ECG)? (Points : 2)
Flattened U waves
Peaked T waves
Depressed ST segments
Peaked P waves
Question 10.10.What term is used to identify the movement of fluids and solutes from the tubular lumen to the peritubular capillary plasma? (Points : 2)
Question 11.11.A hypersensitivity reaction that produces an allergic response is called: (Points : 2)
Question 12.12.Tissue damage caused by the deposition of circulating immune complexes containing an antibody against the host DNA is the cause of which disease? (Points : 2)
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Question 13.13.Cytokines are thought to cause fevers by stimulating the synthesis of which chemical mediator? (Points : 2)
Question 14.14.Blood cells that differentiate into macrophages are known as: (Points : 2)
Question 15.15.Chvostek and Trousseau signs indicate which electrolyte imbalance? (Points : 2)
Question 16.16.On average, what percent of cardiac output do the kidneys receive? (Points : 2)
10% to 20%
15% to 20%
20% to 25%
30% to 35%
Question 17.17.Children with phenylketonuria (PKU) are unable to synthesize: (Points : 2)
Essential amino acid, phenylalanine, to tyrosine
Renin, erythropoietin, and antidiuretic hormone
Aldosterone, cortisol, and androgens
Neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetylcholine
Question 18.18.What is the chance with each pregnancy that a child born to two parents with the sickle trait will have sickle cell disease (SCD)? (Points : 2)
Question 19.19.In a full-term infant, the normal erythrocyte life span is _____ days, whereas the adult erythrocyte life span is _____ days. (Points : 2)
30 to 50; 80
60 to 80; 120
90 to 110; 140
120 to 130; 150
Question 20.20.Which statement accurately describes childhood asthma? (Points : 2)
An obstructive airway disease characterized by reversible airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and inflammation
A pulmonary disease characterized by severe hypoxemia, decreased pulmonary compliance, and diffuse densities on chest x-ray imaging
A pulmonary disorder involving an abnormal expression of a protein, producing viscous mucus that lines the airways, pancreas, sweat ducts, and vas deferens
An obstructive airway disease characterized by atelectasis and increased pulmonary resistance as a result of a surfactant deficiency
Question 21.21.Where are Langerhans cells found? (Points : 2)
Question 22.22.The tonic neck reflex observed in a newborn should no longer be obtainable by: (Points : 2)
Question 23.23.Which of the following causes condylomata acuminata or genital warts? (Points : 2)
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)
Question 24.24.Which normal physiologic change occurs in the aging pulmonary system? (Points : 2)
Decreased flow resistance
Stiffening of the chest wall
Improved elastic recoil
Question 25.25.What is the most commonly reported symptom of cancer treatment? (Points : 2)
Question 26.26.What is the major virus involved in the development of cervical cancer? (Points : 2)
Herpes simplex virus type 6
Herpes simplex virus type 2
Human immunodeficiency virus
Question 27.27.Aspiration is most likely to occur in the right mainstem bronchus because it: (Points : 2)
Extends vertically from the trachea.
Is narrower than the left mainstem bronchus.
Comes into contact with food and drink first.
Is located at the site where the bronchi bifurcate.
Question 28.28.Continued therapy of pernicious anemia (PA) generally lasts how long? (Points : 2)
6 to 8 weeks
8 to 12 months
Until the iron level is normal
The rest of one’s life
Question 29.29.Stress-induced norepinephrine results in: (Points : 2)
Increased sweat gland secretions
Decreased blood pressure
Question 30.30.Which of the following are formed elements of the blood that are not cells but are disk-shaped cytoplasmic fragments essential for blood clotting? (Points : 2)
Question 31.31.Which statement is true regarding maternal antibodies provided to the neonate? (Points : 2)
The antibodies enter into the fetal circulation by means of active transport.
The antibodies are transferred to the fetus via the lymphatic system.
The antibodies are directly related to the mother’s nutritional intake.
The antibodies reach protective levels after approximately 6 months of age.
Question 32.32.What type of immunity is produced when an immunoglobulin crosses the placenta? (Points : 2)
Question 33.33.Which immunoglobulin is present in blood, saliva, breast milk, and respiratory secretions? (Points : 2)
Question 34.34.What local complication of a gonococcal infection is diagnosed in approximately 10% of affected women? (Points : 2)
Question 35.35.Kidney stones in the upper part of the ureter would produce pain referred to which anatomical area? (Points : 2)
Vulva or penis
Question 36.36.Which renal change is found in older adults? (Points : 2)
Sharp decline in glomerular filtration rate
Sharp decline in renal blood flow
Decrease in the number of nephrons
Decrease in urine output
Question 37.37.The function of the tumor cell marker is to: (Points : 2)
Provide a definitive diagnosis of cancer.
Treat certain types of cancer.
Predict where cancers will develop.
Screen individuals at high risk for cancer.
Question 38.38.Which type of anemia occurs as a result of thalassemia? (Points : 2)
Question 39.39.Which chamber of the heart endures the highest pressures? (Points : 2)
Question 40.40.Which cancer originates from connective tissue? (Points : 2)
Basal cell carcinoma
Question 41.41.Cystic fibrosis is caused by which process? (Points : 2)
Autosomal recessive inheritance
Autosomal dominant inheritance
Question 42.42.Which disease is an example of a rickettsial infection? (Points : 2)
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Question 43.43.Stress-induced sympathetic stimulation of the adrenal medulla causes the secretion of: (Points : 2)
Epinephrine and aldosterone
Norepinephrine and cortisol
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Acetylcholine and cortisol
Question 44.44.Where are alveolar macrophages found? (Points : 2)
Question 45.45.Which type of croup is most common? (Points : 2)
Question 46.46.Which hormone prompts increased anxiety, vigilance, and arousal during a stress response? (Points : 2)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Question 47.47.Which organism is responsible for the development of syphilis? (Points : 2)
Question 48.48.What is the function of erythrocytes? (Points : 2)
Question 49.49.Which statement is true regarding pain and cancer? (Points : 2)
Pain is primarily a result of pressure caused by the tumor.
Pain indicates the metastasis of a cancer.
Pain is usually the initial symptom of cancer.
Pain is generally associated with late-stage cancer.
Question 50.50.Hemophilia B is caused by a deficiency of which clotting factor? (Points : 2)
Question 51.51.Consanguinity refers to the mating of persons: (Points : 2)
Who are unrelated
When one has an autosomal dominant disorder
Having common family relations
When one has a chromosomal abnormality
Question 52.52.Which hormone is linked to an increase in appetite during puberty? (Points : 2)
Question 53.53.Obesity acts as an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus by: (Points : 2)
Reducing the amount of insulin the pancreas produces
Increasing the resistance to insulin by cells
Obstructing the outflow of insulin from the pancreas
Stimulating the liver to increase glucose production
Question 54.54.What is the cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)? (Points : 2)
Diet high in saturated fats
Increased production of cholesterol by the liver
Reduction in the number of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cell surfaces
Abnormal function of lipoprotein receptors circulating in the blood
Question 55.55.The absence of which major hormone is a determinant of sexual differentiation (wolffian system) in utero? (Points : 2)
Question 56.56.Saliva contains which immunoglobulin (Ig)? (Points : 2)
Question 57.57.What term describes the loss of the comprehension or production of language? (Points : 2)
Question 58.58.Congenital aganglionic megacolon (Hirschsprung disease) involves inadequate motility of the colon caused by neural malformation of which nervous system? (Points : 2)
Question 59.59.An infant suddenly develops abdominal pain, becomes irritable (colicky), and draws up the knees. Vomiting occurs soon afterward. The mother reports that the infant passed a normal stool, followed by one that looked like currant jelly. Based on these data, which disorder does the nurse suspect? (Points : 2)
Congenital aganglionic megacolon
Question 60.60.Regarding type 2 diabetes, obesity is considered to be what type of risk? (Points : 2)
Question 61.61.An amniocentesis indicates a neural tube defect when an increase in which protein is evident? (Points : 2)
Question 62.62.The portion of the pituitary that secretes oxytocin is: (Points : 2)
Question 63.63.Persistent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) include: (Points : 2)
Question 64.64.Which type of diarrhea results from lactose intolerance? (Points : 2)
Question 65.65.Which gastric cells secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor? (Points : 2)
Question 66.66.The major sleep center is located in which section of the brain? (Points : 2)
Question 67.67.Which type of fracture usually occurs in an individual who engages in a new activity that is strenuous and repetitive? (Points : 2)
Question 68.68.Which term is used to describe an intestinal obstruction caused by the invagination of the ileum into the cecum and part of the ascending colon by collapsing through the ileocecal valve? (Points : 2)
Congenital aganglionic megacolon
Question 69.69.What is the function of the mucus secreted by the Bartholin glands? (Points : 2)
Enhancement of the motility of sperm
Lubrication of the urinary meatus and vestibule
Maintenance of an acid-base balance to discourage proliferation of pathogenic bacteria
Enhancement of the size of the penis during intercourse
Question 70.70.At 2 or 3 weeks of age, an infant who has been well fed and has gained weight begins to vomit for no apparent reason. The vomiting gradually becomes more forceful. These symptoms may be indicative of which disorder? (Points : 2)
Congenital aganglionic megacolon
Question 71.71.Insulin transports which electrolyte in the cell? (Points : 2)
Question 72.72.Clinical manifestations of Parkinson disease are caused by a deficit in which of the brain’s neurotransmitters? (Points : 2)
Question 73.73.The presence of a zygote having one chromosome with the normal complement of genes and one with a missing gene is characteristic of which genetic disorder? (Points : 2)
Cri du chat
Question 74.74.The tear in a ligament is referred to as a: (Points : 2)
Question 75.75.What syndrome, characterized by an absent homologous X chromosome with only a single X chromosome, exhibits features that include a short stature, widely spaced nipples, and webbed neck? (Points : 2)
Cri du chat
Question 76.76.Which risk factor for hypertension is influenced by genetic factors and lifestyle? (Points : 2)
Question 77.77.Which medical diagnosis is characterized by tissue degeneration or irritation of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon? (Points : 2)
Question 78.78.Loud snoring, a decrease in oxygen saturation, fragmented sleep, chronic daytime sleepiness, and fatigue are clinical manifestations of which sleep disorder? (Points : 2)
Obstructive sleep apnea
Upper airway resistance syndrome
Question 79.79.Which four-step process correctly describes muscle contraction? (Points : 2)
Coupling, contraction, relaxation, excitation
Contraction, relaxation, excitation, coupling
Relaxation, excitation, coupling, contraction
Excitation, coupling, contraction, relaxation
Question 80.80.What term is used to identify the calcium crystals that are associated with chronic gout? (Points : 2)
Question 81.81.Which substance is a water-soluble protein hormone? (Points : 2)
Question 82.82.What happens to the vagina’s lining at puberty? (Points : 2)
It becomes thinner.
It becomes thicker.
It assumes a neutral pH.
It undergoes atrophy.
Question 83.83.Why is prolonged diarrhea more severe in children than it is in adults? (Points : 2)
Less water is absorbed from the colon in children.
Fluid reserves are smaller in children.
Children have a higher fluid volume intake.
Children have diarrhea more often than adults.
Question 84.84.Pinkeye is characterized by inflammation of which structure? (Points : 2)
Question 85.85.Which dietary lifestyle choice has been associated with a decreased risk for developing colon cancer? (Points : 2)
Increased consumption of dairy produces
Increased consumption of foods containing vitamin C
Decreased consumption of foods high in fat
Decreased consumption of artificial food coloring
Question 86.86.Having ejected a mature ovum, the ovarian follicle develops into a(n): (Points : 2)
Question 87.87.What is the term that denotes the duration of time or the intensity of pain that a person will endure before outwardly responding? (Points : 2)
Question 88.88.Where is oxytocin synthesized? (Points : 2)
Question 89.89.Adoption studies have shown that the offspring of an alcoholic parent when raised by nonalcoholic parents have what amount of an increased risk of developing alcoholism? (Points : 2)
Question 90.90.A child with which genetic disorder has a characteristic cry? (Points : 2)
Cri du chat
Question 91.91.It is true that myasthenia gravis: (Points : 2)
Is an acute autoimmune disease.
Affects the nerve roots.
May result in adrenergic crisis.
Causes muscle weakness.
Question 92.92.Which of the following is a lipid-soluble hormone? (Points : 2)
Question 93.93.Which pain theory proposes that a balance of impulses conducted from the spinal cord to the higher centers in the central nervous system (CNS) modulates the transmission of pain? (Points : 2)
Question 94.94.Which anatomic structure secretes follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)? (Points : 2)
Question 95.95.What is the most common malignant bone tumor diagnosed during childhood? (Points : 2)
Question 96.96.In scoliosis, curves in the thoracic spine greater than how many degrees result in decreased pulmonary function? (Points : 2)
Question 97.97.Which clinical manifestations would be expected for a child who has complete trisomy of the twenty-first chromosome? (Points : 2)
Widely spaced nipples, reduced carrying angle at the elbow, and sparse body hair
An IQ of 25 to 70, low nasal bridge, protruding tongue, and flat, low-set ears
High-pitched voice, tall stature, gynecomastia, and an IQ of 60 to 90
Circumoral cyanosis, edema of the feet, short stature, and mental slowness
Question 98.98.DNA formation occurs in which of the cell’s structures? (Points : 2)
Question 99.99.A complex partial seizure is described as: (Points : 2)
Alternating of tonic and clonic movements
Impairment of both consciousness and the ability to react to exogenous stimuli
Focal motor movement without loss of consciousness
One seizure followed by another in less than 1 minute
Question 100.100.Parkinson disease is a degenerative disorder of the brain’s: (Points : 2)